Official Journal of Physical Education Foundation of India.
Volume 10, Issue 2, Year 2021
Articles

Transgenders in Sports: When Physiology and Equality are Incongrous

Anilendu Pramanik
MINISTRY OF YOUTH AFFAIRS AND SPORTS- Guru Nanak Dev University-Department of Sports Sciences and Medicine, Amritsar, Punjab-143005, India.
Akshita Goel
MINISTRY OF YOUTH AFFAIRS AND SPORTS- Guru Nanak Dev University-Department of Sports Sciences and Medicine, Amritsar, Punjab-143005, India.
Rajatmani Tripathi
MINISTRY OF YOUTH AFFAIRS AND SPORTS- Guru Nanak Dev University-Department of Sports Sciences and Medicine, Amritsar, Punjab-143005, India.

Published 2021-12-22

Keywords

  • Transgenders,
  • Sports Physiology,
  • Sports,
  • Equality,
  • Fairness

How to Cite

Pramanik, A., Goel, A., & Tripathi, R. (2021). Transgenders in Sports: When Physiology and Equality are Incongrous. International Journal of Physical Education, Health & Sports Sciences, 10(2), 25-32. Retrieved from https://pefijournal.org/index.php/ijpehss/article/view/69

Abstract

INTRODUCTION: It's critical to understand evolving connotations’ sexual identity, as well as what they entail in sports. Acknowledge how sexuality can have role in determining level of competence required to participate in sports. There should be no irrational classifications based on gender or sexuality. With passing years, already cisgendered world of sports has afforded female athletes’ equitable opportunities. This transformation in perspective has resulted in an increase in proportion of transgender athletes in long run. This review examines current stance regarding transsexuals and the discrimination they face, whether blatant or stealth, as well as how breakthroughs are rapidly evolving to construct a better realm for equal opportunity in sports to everyone. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An electronic literature search of studies published between August 2018 and August 2021 was completed. - Inclusion criteria: (1) article published between January 2010 and August 2021; (2) human subjects; (3) published in English; (4) including participants relating to transgenders. RESULTS: 14 studies meeting inclusion criteria were considered for qualitative syntheses. DISCUSSION: In sports, unfair treatment and barriers have an effect on physical activity level and overall health of transgenders. Adverse experiences in sporting competitions due to restrictions in policies, with no major evidence-based policy making practices as far as transgender inclusion is reported. Discrimination against transgender individuals at various levels leads to negative impact on their sports participation. More research is needed in order to formulate upgraded and more evidence-based guidelines, that aid in maintaining the balance between equality and ethics of sports participation.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

  1. Adams, D. (2020). The Power and Impact of Framing Transgender Athletes in Sports.
  2. Chanda, S., Singh, A. (2021). Trans-sexuality right a new era of challenge at 21st century of sports. Symbiosis Law School, 1(1), 25-39.
  3. Cunningham, G.B., Buzuvis, E., & Mosier, C. (2018). Inclusive spaces and locker rooms for transgender athletes. Kinesiology Review, 7(4), 365–374. https://doi.org/10.1123/kr.2017-0062
  4. Gillen, J. (2021). Striking the Balance of Fairness and Inclusion: The Future of Women’s Sports After the Supreme Court’s Landmark Decision in Bostock v. Clayton County, GA. Jeffrey S. Moorad Sports Law Journal, 28(2), 415-447.
  5. Hargie, O.D.W., Mitchell, D.H., & Somerville, I.J.A. (2017). ‘People have a knack of making you feel excluded if they catch on to your difference’: Transgender experiences of exclusion in sport. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 52(2), 223–239. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1012690215583283
  6. https://blogs.bmj.com/medical-ethics/2019/06/19/when-ideology-and-physiology-dont-align-transwomen-in-elite-womens-sport/
  7. Jones, B.A., Arcelus, J., & Bouman, W.P., Haycraft, E. (2017). Sport and transgender people: a systematic review of the literature relating to sport participation and competitive sport policies. Sports Medicine, 47(4), 701–716. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-016-0621-y
  8. Joy, C. (2020). Gender Exclusion in Sports and its Influence on Health.
  9. Love, A. (2017). The tenuous inclusion of transgender athletes in sport. In Transgender athletes in competitive sport, Routledge, 194–205.
  10. Pereira-García, S., Devís-Devís, J., Fuentes-Miguel, J., Sparkes, A.C., Pérez-Samaniego, V. (2021). Exploring Trans People’s Narratives of Transition: Negotiation of Gendered Bodies in Physical Activity and Sport. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(18), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18189854
  11. Riseman, N. (2021). A history of transgender women in Australian Sports, 1976–2017. Sport in History, 1–28. https://doi.org/10.1080/17460263.2021.1938194
  12. Roberts, T. A., Smalley, J., & Ahrendt, D. (2021). Effect of gender affirming hormones on athletic performance in transwomen and transmen: implications for sporting organisations and legislators. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 55(11), 577–583. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2020-102329
  13. Tandale, P.P., Mugale, D., & Sudhakarrao, S. (2021). National Conference. Aayushi International Interdisciplinary Research Journal (AIIRJ),1-123.
  14. Tishev, T. (2019). Re-imagining sports reporting: Creating social change in the area of transgender discrimination. Loughborough University, 1-40.